The various forms of Energy are vital to the progress of mankind and industrialization can hardly be achieved without dependence on it. Because of the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuel reserves that provide the major sources of energy, scientists have started thinking about the research and development of non-conventional energy sources. A major achievement in this direction is the Photovoltaic (PV) technology that uses solar cells to generate electrical energy directly from sunlight.

Benefits of Photovoltaic Technology:

Photovoltaic technology provides some major benefits some of which are listed below.

  • Lower recurring costs. The recurring maintenance costs involved in the usage of solar energy are very low as compared to conventional energy systems as Solar Energy, by nature, comes free of cost.
  • No pollution. Solar Energy is pollution-free and is therefore a vital contributor towards Quality maintenance and an important aspect of Environment Management System (EMS).
  • Renewable in nature. Solar energy is renewable in nature and is not subject to depletion or exhaustion like petrol, diesel, fuel wood and other conventional fuels.
  • Longer life. Solar energy driven systems have longer life than others.
  • Higher reliability. Among all electricity generation technologies, solar systems can provide reliable power for a larger number of applications.
  • Operation is modular. Modularity is an advantage of solar systems and it allows the user to start with small systems for single applications initially and add on to their systems as their needs and funds increase.
  • Credit gains for reduced carbon emissions, now available in many countries.
  • Possibility of application in remote areas where electricity has not yet reached. Solar energy can provide reliable power for a large number of applications across a wide variety of environmental conditions and geographical locations, in many of which areas previously it could even not be dreamt of.
  • Combined Heat & Power (CHP). Solar systems provide cost savings through co-generation of Power and Heat Solar power stations run 24 hours a day with alternative fuels (biomass, gas or oil) during non day-light hours thus extending their economic viability. On-site plants allow industry and commerce to respond to increased power demands as well as to reduce the dependence on centralized power supplies.
Designing of Photovoltaic System:

Photovoltaic systems generally consist of a power source (the PV array), storage unit (usually a battery), charge controllers unit (voltage regulator, meters, alarms) and a load (device consuming the electric power). The steps that are involved in designing a photovoltaic system are the following:

  • Calculating the Load
  • Calculating the Module output
  • Calculating the losses
  • Choosing a Controller
  • Sizing the storage capacity
  • Matching Array size to load
Applications of Photovoltaic System:

Photovoltaic systems have found application in numerous areas where the remoteness of the sites precludes conventional forms of power from being used. Photovoltaic systems have been used for the following applications:

  • Decentralized Power Generation
  • Industrial Lighting
  • Street Lighting
  • Rural electrification and Water Pumping Systems
  • Electric Shock Fencing
  • Rural Telephone Exchanges
  • Unmanned Offshore Oil Platforms
  • Meteorological Data Collection Platforms
  • Railway Distant Signalling Systems
  • Railway Communication Equipment
  • Railway Station Panel Interlocking Systems
  • Railway Track Circuit Systems
  • Microwave Repeater Stations
  • Battery Charging Systems
  • Desalination plants
  • Navigation aids
  • Portable Remote Communication Systems
  • Cathodic Protection of Pipelines
  • Lower Wattage Modules for powering low power applications.
  • Standby power to institutions that cannot tolerate power stoppages

Fossil fuels are being fast depleted and the burning of these fuels in an ever increasing rate is resulting in global warming with threatening consequences. On the contrary, sustainable development of the world demands progressively lesser dependence of the human society on these fossil fuels. Against the backdrop of increased demand for energy, the use of lesser amount of fossil fuels and increased supply of energy can only be met by a planned harnessing of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. The non-conventional energy sources are essentially of solar origin and solar thermal energy is an important component of it.

In every process industry control of temperature and heat flow rate are of critical importance. It is likely to be more so in food processing industries because of the quality of the product just by the consistency, by the taste and aroma is quite sensitive not only to the temperature but also to the uniformity of the same.

Benefits of Solar Thermal Systems:
Thermal energy provides the following major benefits:
  • Lower maintenance costs. As already discussed, the maintenance costs of solar energy systems are very low as compared to conventional energy systems as Solar Energy is free in nature.
  • Renewable in nature. Solar energy is renewable and is not likely to be depleted or exhausted like petrol, diesel and other conventional fuels.
  • No pollution. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) benefit can be achieved by the user.
  • Longer life.
  • Higher reliability. Among all electricity generation technologies, solar systems can provide reliable power for a larger number of applications.
  • Possibility of application in remote areas. Solar energy can provide reliable power for a large number of applications across a wide variety of environmental conditions and geographical locations, in many of which areas previously it could even not be dreamt of.
  • Combined Heat & Power (CHP). Solar systems provide cost savings through co-generation of Power and Heat.
Applications of Solar Thermal Energy:

Thermal applications may be for Low temperature, Medium temperature or High temperature in some specific areas as listed below:

Low temperature usage in:
  • Swimming Pools
  • Hatchery Ponds
  • Ventilation Preheat
  • Car Wash
  • Snow Melting
Mid temperature usage in:
  • Residential and Commercial Hot Water
  • Cafeterias
  • Laundries
  • Space Heating (Radiant Slab)
  • Prisons
  • Recreational Facilities
  • Day Care
High temperature usage in:
  • Industrial Processes
  • Electricity Generation
  • Often Used for Water and Space Heating

The following are some of the appliances using Solar Thermal energy that can be installed in homes, industrial and commercial organizations.

  • Solar Water Heaters -
    Solar Water Heating is a cost effective and environmentally cleaner alternative to diesel, gas and oil. The following are some industrial applications of solar water heaters: Hotels: Bathing, kitchen, washing, laundry applications
    Dairies: Ghee production, cleaning and sterilizing
    Textiles: Bleaching, boiling, printing, dyeing, curing, ageing and finishing
    Breweries & Distilleries: Bottle washing, boiler feed heating
    Chemical /Bulk drugs units: Fermentation of mixes, boiler feed applications
    Electroplating/galvanizing units: Heating of plating baths, cleaning, degreasing applications
    Pulp and paper industries: Boiler feed applications, soaking of pulp
  • Solar Cooker -
    Solar cooker saves fossil fuels, fuel wood and electrical energy to a large extent but can only supplement the cooking fuel, and not replace it totally. It is a simple cooking unit, ideal for domestic cooking during most part of the year. A family size box-type solar cooker is sufficient for cooking for 4 to 5 members and can save upto 4 LPG cylinders every year. It has a life of about 15 years. Parabolic concentrating solar cookers are another option. It is designed to direct the solar heat to a secondary reflector inside the kitchen, which focuses the heat to the bottom of a cooking pot. It is possible to fry, bake and roast food. This system generates enough steam to cook two meals for 500 people.
  • Solar Air Conditioners -
    Solar energy can be effectively used for air conditioning using a variety of collectors combined with power blocks and thermal chillers. Solar powered absorption chillers can now be integrated into complete heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems. This technology reduces electric power peak-load demand for air conditioning during the hottest times of the day. Following are some types of Solar air conditioners:
    Cogeneration and Parabolic Troughs -
    Parabolic-trough solar collectors combined with a distributed power plant can power air conditioning. Small power plants usually 100kW to 1MW and from 1MW to 10 MW in capacity can be operated on or off the grid. They are suited to commercial and industrial uses in office buildings, small communities, hotels, hospitals and industry.
    Vacuum Collectors and Double effect absorption Chillers -
    This type of collector can work well in areas of low diffused radiation - even in conditions of snow. It can reach temperatures of up to 250 ºC in certain configurations.
    A Flat Plate Solar Collector with Single Effect Absorption Chiller -
    This technology may be economically viable in certain locations depending on the costs of fuels, radiation levels and equipment costs.
    Flat Plate Solar Collector Combined with a Desiccant Chiller -
    It provides air-conditioning and dehumidification.
  • District Heating -
    Heating suitable for large residential complexes at temperature ranges of 80ºC
  • Solar Process Heating Systems -
    These are designed to deliver high temperatures to a diverse range of industries. The system includes solar collectors, pumps, heat exchangers and storage tanks. Temperatures required for process heat are usually within 85 - 120ºC depending on the industry. It can be used in the following industries:
    Food and dairy product processing: for sterilization, pasteurization and cooking.

Biogas plants are rampantly developing and improving the living conditions of the poorer sections with the essential function of decreasing pollution in the environment. It is a renewable source of energy that can be used as manure for fertilizing purposes aswell. It improves sanitization and hygiene and dramatically reduces the green house effects in the atmosphere. The development of biogas plants has been a boon for India as it has facilitated in the generation of employment. The setting up of a biogas plant is cheap with a speedy disposal of wastes in a healthy manner. Biogas is being the integral content for power generation with a lower range of 3kw-250kw.The projects under MNRE are (BPGP) Biogas based power generation programme, the remote village electrification programme or (RVE) and urban industrial and commercial applications for the sale of electricity. Our group has the plans to educate the masses with training in these vistas. The amount of monetary aids that are to be expected from the ministry is restricted to 100000 per event.

The recent survey tells about the demand of 500 million metric tones of biomass each year. Biomass is one of the crucial energy sources with umpteen number of facilities to offer. 32% of the basic energy use is owing to biomass and 70% of the people in India are relying upon it. Biomass projects are being introduced in the rural regions through vivid training campaigns with the agenda of preparing bio-power at a competitive price. The heat from industrial wastes or agricultural residues are to be treated for this purpose. Some of the programmes are Biomass power generation or bagasse cogeneration , non-bagasse cogeneration, Biomass gasifier, Urban & industrial wastes. The biomass generation energy has the intention to invest 600 crores per year with the promise of producing 5000 million units of electricity with employment to 10 million people a year. The principles to generate biomass will be based on thermo chemical processes like pyrolysis, gasification or combustion similar to the procedure employed in thermal plants. 288 biomass power and cogeneration projects which calculates to 2665 MW capacity is based for nourishing the country’s power grids out of which 130 are biomass projects of 999.0 MW and 158 bagasse cogeneration implanted in the sugar mills with excess capacity of 1666.0 MW. About 70 cogeneration projects are in the pipeline.

We have the stratagems of Heat and electricity generation singularly through a common generating site at the same time. This will enable the usage of the excess heat for many other purposes in the industrial and commercial sectors. The process of electricity generation leads to some amount of energy release being waste. Thus cogeneration ensures the utilization of this extra thermal power by emitting them through cooling towers, which makes the fuel consumption lesser resulting in the generation of energy. Conventional electricity grids encounter losses of 5-10% while combined heating and power has an energy saving range of 15-40%. The fuel that is conserved will be bringing down the cost with combustion of minimal fuel for generating both heat and electricity. CHP are easily fed with the ability to accept changes with lesser discharge of harmful gases like Carbon-dioxide.

We intend to give a centrally located source in buildings for cooling instead of multiple and cumbersome individual systems. Chilled water will be chanelled to heat exchangers that will send the cool water to the internal arrangement. The heated water that will be used in air conditioning will return to the heat exchangers for cooling again. The Buildings will be accurately cooled or heated as necessary.

Obtaining the heat from the co-generating plants to centralize it in the buildings for putting it to further use in residences and commercial sectors. Biomass energy is to be primarily used for this purpose .District heating techniques is very environment friendly and highly efficient than boilers that are constructed in the local areas. Research has shown that it is very profitable and economical. Plus it has frantically decreased carbon emission or fossil generation in plants.

Energy is essential to economic development. Energy provides mobility, heat and light, and fuels the machinery that drives the global economy. But the world's dependence on coal and oil harms public health and the environment, causing air pollution and climate change .Climate model projections were summarized in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). They indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9°C for their lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4°C for their highest.

As per the guidelines of Energy Conservation Act, 2001 implemented by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in India, the company evaluates the existing energy benchmarking of the clients and accordingly provides clients with helpful and constructive advices on energy conservation. Our team of experts guides the clients with their valuable recommendations and suggestions for cost cutting in their energy bills.The qualified energy managers associated with the company with expertise in energy management, project management and implementation of energy efficiency projects and policy analysis provide guidance to clients in the said matters. This division mainly aims at helping the clients to increase their profitability by reducing their cost and consumption of energy

The strategy and planning will be primarily on the renewable sources of energy. We focus on astute use of energy to bring transformation in lives. We are offering works in carbon neutral technologies, Solar energy that can reach to 289 million people who are disadvantaged and has no access to electricity. We are blessed with 5000 TWh solar radiation in a year that is substantial to make futuristic goals.

Evaluation of the ability of geothermal reserves in the country and to regulate these resources for power generation that would create conditions for space heating, green houses and cooking. Small scale power generation projects have been attempted through geothermal power in villages . The national Hydro electric power commissions has tried to forward reports on the possibilities for setting up geo-thermal fields in some states of India.

The Indian subcontinent is replete with many gulfs or estuaries. The energy stored in the waves of these are beyond our comprehension and their force is intense with the might to run turbines to form power. The ministry has ratified a project for organization of a 3.75 MW demonstration tidal power plant in the Sunderbans. Studies and research work are taking place in Gujarat and Cambay where the maximum tidal range of 11m and 8m with average tidal range of 6.73 and 5.23 has been assessed with a strength of the waves that can create 7000 MW in the Gulf of Cambay. The state government is trying to sustain the project for large scale implementation of it in the coastlines of Gujarat. Kinetic energy present in water currents will be put to use along the water without using turbines.

The probability of wind power energy has been estimated to be 48500 MW by the Government of India. Two kinds of turbines the pitch regulated and stall regulated are at work. West Bengal has been included in the ambit of demonstration of wind power capacity and projects will be initiated by the State Government, State Nodal Energies or electricity boards. We hope to introduce the influence of solar energy that would enhance windmill generation. Projects are proposed to be instituted in these resource areas.

With the vehement contribution of power sectors in building power grids distribution is not a burdensome activity anymore. The ministry of power has proposed competitive bidding process which is tariff based for a flawless transmission of power. The capital or backing for electricity are very unevenly concentrated in few regions. The load centres are distanced from the resourceful areas so projects are proposed to be instituted in these resource areas with each area having the capacity of 5000-10000 MW. The demand for electricity in India is augmenting in a fast pace and is presently in the figures of 11500 MW and the installed capacity is of 1,52,380 MW with generation mix (63% is from thermal 25% from hydro and 9% from nuclear and renewables).